Backups incrementales con rsnapshot

Si buscas un sistema para crear copias de seguridad incrementales y de manera automática a través de rsync, tanto en máquinas locales como remotas a través de ssh, rnsaphot es lo que estas buscando.

Rsnapshot utiliza enlaces duros para la realización de la copia, siempre que sea posible, ahorrando espacio en el disco.

Funcionamiento

La primera vez que realizas una copia, copias todas los datos, la segunda vez solamente copiara aquellos ficheros nuevos o que hayan sido modificados.

Podemos personalizar completamente el intervalo de estas copias (diario, semanal, mensual, anual, etc), numero de copias a mantener, etc.

Instalación

En distribuciones basadas en debian


sudo apt-get install rsnapshot

Arch y derivadas


sudo pacman -S sudo rsnapshot

OpenSuse


sudo zypper in rsnapshot

Escenario

Para mi ejemplo, vamos a tener dos discos duros locales, sda1 montado en /mnt/datos y sdb1 motando en /mnt/backups

Configuración

Su configuración es muy sencilla, basta con editar el fichero de configuración ubicado en /etc/rsnapshot.conf

En el fichero de configuración no se ponen espacios en blando, se tabula.

Valores más importantes

Los valores mas importantes a tener en cuenta en la configuración son los siguientes:

  • snapshot_root donde se van a guardar las copias de seguridad, *importante la barra final opara que reconozca el directorio

snapshot_root   /backup/
  • no_create_root indica si se crea automáticamente el directorio destino especificado en el valor anterior, rsnapshot_root, esto suele ser útil para unidades extraíbles

#no_create_root
  • cmd_cp ruta del comando cp (se deja como esta)

cmd_cp		/bin/cp
  • cmd_rm ruta del comando rm (se deja como esta)
cmd_rm		/bin/rm
  • cmd_rsync ruta del comando rsync (se deja como esta)
cmd_rsync		/bin/bin/rsync
  • cmd_ssh ruta del comando ssh. descomentar si se va a utilizar
#cmd_ssh		/usr/bin/ssh
  • cmd_du si hemos instalado du, podemos saber el espacio que están ocupando las copias de seguridad. (se descomenta)
cmd_du		/usr/bin/du
  • cmd_rsnapshot_diff para ver las diferencias entre las diferentes copias de seguridad.
/usr/bin/rsnapshot-diff
  • retain indica la politica de copias , daily 7 haŕa una copia cada dia, manteniendo las 7 ultimos dias, weekly 4 una cada semana , manteniendo las ultimas 4, mounthly 12 una cada mes, mantenniedo las 12 ultimas, yearly 5 una copia cada año, manteniendo las ultimas 5 copias.
retain  daily   7
retain  weekly  4
retain  monthly 12
retain  yearly  5
  • logfile ubicación del archivo log de rsnapshot
logfile	/var/log/rsnapshot.log
  • backup carpetas de las que queremos hacer copia y la ubicación donde se va a guardar la copia, el parámetro exclude sirven para omitir carpetas o ficheros en la copia.
backup  /home/carlos/           datos/
backup  /mnt/datos/Media/       datos/  exclude=Series,exclude=Cine
backup  /mnt/datos/Datos/       datos/
backup  /mnt/datos/Docker/      datos/

Mi archivo de configuración


#################################################
# rsnapshot.conf - rsnapshot configuration file #
#################################################
#                                               #
# PLEASE BE AWARE OF THE FOLLOWING RULE:        #
#                                               #
# This file requires tabs between elements      #
#                                               #
#################################################

#######################
# CONFIG FILE VERSION #
#######################

config_version	1.2

###########################
# SNAPSHOT ROOT DIRECTORY #
###########################

# All snapshots will be stored under this root directory.
#
snapshot_root	/mnt/backup/

# If no_create_root is enabled, rsnapshot will not automatically create the
# snapshot_root directory. This is particularly useful if you are backing
# up to removable media, such as a FireWire or USB drive.
#
#no_create_root	1

#################################
# EXTERNAL PROGRAM DEPENDENCIES #
#################################

# LINUX USERS:   Be sure to uncomment "cmd_cp". This gives you extra features.
# EVERYONE ELSE: Leave "cmd_cp" commented out for compatibility.
#
# See the README file or the man page for more details.
#
cmd_cp		/bin/cp

# uncomment this to use the rm program instead of the built-in perl routine.
#
cmd_rm		/bin/rm

# rsync must be enabled for anything to work. This is the only command that
# must be enabled.
#
cmd_rsync	/usr/bin/rsync

# Uncomment this to enable remote ssh backups over rsync.
#
#cmd_ssh	/usr/bin/ssh

# Comment this out to disable syslog support.
#
cmd_logger	/usr/bin/logger

# Uncomment this to specify the path to "du" for disk usage checks.
# If you have an older version of "du", you may also want to check the
# "du_args" parameter below.

cmd_du		/usr/bin/du

# Uncomment this to specify the path to rsnapshot-diff.
#
cmd_rsnapshot_diff	/usr/bin/rsnapshot-diff

# Specify the path to a script (and any optional arguments) to run right
# before rsnapshot syncs files
#
#cmd_preexec	/path/to/preexec/script

# Specify the path to a script (and any optional arguments) to run right
# after rsnapshot syncs files
#
#cmd_postexec	/path/to/postexec/script

# Paths to lvcreate, lvremove, mount and umount commands, for use with
# Linux LVMs.
#
#linux_lvm_cmd_lvcreate	/sbin/lvcreate
#linux_lvm_cmd_lvremove	/sbin/lvremove
#linux_lvm_cmd_mount	/bin/mount
#linux_lvm_cmd_umount	/bin/umount

#########################################
#     BACKUP LEVELS / INTERVALS         #
# Must be unique and in ascending order #
# e.g. alpha, beta, gamma, etc.         #
#########################################
retain	daily	7
retain	weekly	4
retain	monthly	12
retain	yearly	5

############################################
#              GLOBAL OPTIONS              #
# All are optional, with sensible defaults #
############################################

# Verbose level, 1 through 5.
# 1     Quiet           Print fatal errors only
# 2     Default         Print errors and warnings only
# 3     Verbose         Show equivalent shell commands being executed
# 4     Extra Verbose   Show extra verbose information
# 5     Debug mode      Everything
#
verbose		2

# Same as "verbose" above, but controls the amount of data sent to the
# logfile, if one is being used. The default is 3.
# If you want the rsync output, you have to set it to 4
#
loglevel	3

# If you enable this, data will be written to the file you specify. The
# amount of data written is controlled by the "loglevel" parameter.
#
#logfile	/var/log/rsnapshot.log

# If enabled, rsnapshot will write a lockfile to prevent two instances
# from running simultaneously (and messing up the snapshot_root).
# If you enable this, make sure the lockfile directory is not world
# writable. Otherwise anyone can prevent the program from running.
#
lockfile	/var/run/rsnapshot.pid

# By default, rsnapshot check lockfile, check if PID is running
# and if not, consider lockfile as stale, then start
# Enabling this stop rsnapshot if PID in lockfile is not running
#
#stop_on_stale_lockfile		0

# Default rsync args. All rsync commands have at least these options set.
#
#rsync_short_args	-a
#rsync_long_args	--delete --numeric-ids --relative --delete-qexcluded

# ssh has no args passed by default, but you can specify some here.
#
#ssh_args	-p 22

# Default arguments for the "du" program (for disk space reporting).
# The GNU version of "du" is preferred. See the man page for more details.
# If your version of "du" doesn't support the -h flag, try -k flag instead.
#
#du_args	-csh

# If this is enabled, rsync won't span filesystem partitions within a
# backup point. This essentially passes the -x option to rsync.
# The default is 0 (off).
#
#one_fs		0

# The include and exclude parameters, if enabled, simply get passed directly
# to rsync. If you have multiple include/exclude patterns, put each one on a
# separate line. Please look up the --include and --exclude options in the
# rsync man page for more details on how to specify file name patterns.
#
#include	???
#include	???
#exclude	???
#exclude	???

# The include_file and exclude_file parameters, if enabled, simply get
# passed directly to rsync. Please look up the --include-from and
# --exclude-from options in the rsync man page for more details.
#
#include_file	/path/to/include/file
#exclude_file	/path/to/exclude/file

# If your version of rsync supports --link-dest, consider enabling this.
# This is the best way to support special files (FIFOs, etc) cross-platform.
# The default is 0 (off).
#
#link_dest	0

# When sync_first is enabled, it changes the default behaviour of rsnapshot.
# Normally, when rsnapshot is called with its lowest interval
# (i.e.: "rsnapshot alpha"), it will sync files AND rotate the lowest
# intervals. With sync_first enabled, "rsnapshot sync" handles the file sync,
# and all interval calls simply rotate files. See the man page for more
# details. The default is 0 (off).
#
#sync_first	0

# If enabled, rsnapshot will move the oldest directory for each interval
# to [interval_name]delete, then it will remove the lockfile and delete
# that directory just before it exits. The default is 0 (off).
#
#use_lazy_deletes	0

# Number of rsync re-tries. If you experience any network problems or
# network card issues that tend to cause ssh to fail with errors like
# "Corrupted MAC on input", for example, set this to a non-zero value
# to have the rsync operation re-tried.
#
#rsync_numtries 0

# LVM parameters. Used to backup with creating lvm snapshot before backup
# and removing it after. This should ensure consistency of data in some special
# cases
#
# LVM snapshot(s) size (lvcreate --size option).
#
#linux_lvm_snapshotsize	100M

# Name to be used when creating the LVM logical volume snapshot(s).
#
#linux_lvm_snapshotname	rsnapshot

# Path to the LVM Volume Groups.
#
#linux_lvm_vgpath	/dev

# Mount point to use to temporarily mount the snapshot(s).
#
#linux_lvm_mountpath	/path/to/mount/lvm/snapshot/during/backup

###############################
### BACKUP POINTS / SCRIPTS ###
###############################

# LOCALHOST
backup	/home/carlos/		datos/
backup	/mnt/datos/Media/	datos/	exclude=Series,exclude=Cine
backup	/mnt/datos/Datos/	datos/
backup	/mnt/datos/Docker/	datos/
#backup	/var/log/rsnapshot		localhost/
#backup	/etc/passwd	localhost/
#backup	/home/foo/My Documents/		localhost/
#backup	/foo/bar/	localhost/	one_fs=1, rsync_short_args=-urltvpog
#backup_script	/usr/local/bin/backup_pgsql.sh	localhost/postgres/
# You must set linux_lvm_* parameters below before using lvm snapshots
#backup	lvm://vg0/xen-home/	lvm-vg0/xen-home/

# EXAMPLE.COM
#backup_exec	/bin/date "+ backup of example.com started at %c"
#backup	root@example.com:/home/	example.com/	+rsync_long_args=--bwlimit=16,exclude=core
#backup	root@example.com:/etc/	example.com/	exclude=mtab,exclude=core
#backup_exec	ssh root@example.com "mysqldump -A > /var/db/dump/mysql.sql"
#backup	root@example.com:/var/db/dump/	example.com/
#backup_exec	/bin/date "+ backup of example.com ended at %c"

# CVS.SOURCEFORGE.NET
#backup_script	/usr/local/bin/backup_rsnapshot_cvsroot.sh	rsnapshot.cvs.sourceforge.net/

# RSYNC.SAMBA.ORG
#backup	rsync://rsync.samba.org/rsyncftp/	rsync.samba.org/rsyncftp/

Comprobación

Para comprobar si el fichero de configuración de rsnapshot es correcto, ejecutamos


sudo rsnapshot configtest
Syntax OK

Podemos realizar una primera copia de seguridad con el comando


sudo rsnapshot daily

Podemos ver que se creado la carpeta daily.0/ y a su vez dentro de daily.0/, ha creado la carpeta datos tal y como indicamos en el fichero de configuración, las siguientes carpetas home/carlos, mnt/datos/Media, mnt/datos/Datos, mnt/datos/Docker,


tree -L 4 /mnt/backup/daily.0
/mnt/backup/daily.0
`-- datos
    |-- home
    |   `-- carlos
    |       |-- bin
    |       |-- confs
    |       `-- snap
    `-- mnt
        `-- datos
            |-- Datos
            |-- Docker
            `-- Media

11 directories, 0 files

Programar las copia de seguridad

Las copias de seguridad en Rsnapshot se programan mediante cron, el fichero de configuración se encuentra en /etc/cron.d/rsnapshot, por ejemplo mi fichero es el siguiente:

30 3 * * *  root /usr/bin/rsnapshot daily
0 3 * * 1   root /usr/bin/rsnapshot weekly
30 2 1 * *  root /usr/bin/rsnapshot monthly
0 6 1 1 *   root /usr/bin/rsnapshot yearly

Comandos útiles

Podemos utilizar algunos comandos para gestionar las copias

Comprobar el espacio ocupado


sudo rsnapshot du
209G	/mnt/backup/daily.0/
928M	/mnt/backup/daily.1/
1.7G	/mnt/backup/daily.2/
212G	total

Ver las diferencias entre copias de seguridad


sudo rsnapshot-diff -vH /mnt/backup/daily.0 /mnt/backup/daily.1
- /mnt/backup/daily.1/datos/mnt/datos/Docker/Config/letsencrypt/nginx/proxy-confs/flood.subdomain.conf.sample
- /mnt/backup/daily.1/datos/mnt/datos/Docker/Config/letsencrypt/nginx/proxy-confs/airsonic.subfolder.conf.sample
- /mnt/backup/daily.1/datos/mnt/datos/Docker/Config/letsencrypt/nginx/proxy-confs/znc.subdomain.conf.sample
+ /mnt/backup/daily.0/datos/mnt/datos/Media/Imágenes/Fotos/Familia/2019/08/IMG_20190818_202441.jpg
+ /mnt/backup/daily.0/datos/mnt/datos/Media/Imágenes/Fotos/Familia/2019/08/IMG_20190818_114802.jpg
Between /mnt/backup/daily.1 and /mnt/backup/daily.0:
  1001 were added, taking 8577568450 bytes (8180.21 MB, 7.99 GB)
  444 were removed, saving 793629020 bytes (756.86 MB, 0.74 GB)

Espero que te haya gustado, pasa un buen día.

Referencia: